[390][391] In 1997, an open letter to then-German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, published as a newspaper advertisement in the International Herald Tribune, drew parallels between the "organized oppression" of Scientologists in Germany and the treatment of Jews in 1930s' Nazi Germany. [476] Participation in higher-level courses on the Bridge may cost several thousand dollars, and Scientologists usually move up the Bridge at a rate governed by their income. [62] He became a popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors. Aaron says one staff member used a coat hanger and self-aborted her child for fear of punishment," said Senator Xenophon. [83] Based on a design by Volney Mathison, the device is held by Scientologists to be a useful tool in detecting changes in a person's state of mind. These engrams are named Implants in the doctrine of Scientology. [201], Although the Church of Scientology claims to be the fastest growing religious movement on Earth, the organization's estimates of its membership numbers are reportedly significantly exaggerated. [443] According to Hubbard himself, Scientology is "the Western anglicized continuance of many early forms of wisdom". [138][139] The reactive mind stores mental images which are not readily available to the analytical (conscious) mind; these are referred to as engrams. If at any time you wish to no longer receive email from us, simply use the link provided at the bottom of the message. The Church developed outreach programs to fight drug addiction, illiteracy, learning disabilities and criminal behavior. [225] The largest of these is in Hollywood, California, called Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. For example, Scientology—a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body—does not propound the existence of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definition propounded by the Supreme Court. According to L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology’s fundamental creation myth goes something like this: Xenu (also referred to as Xemu) was once ruler of the Galactic Confederacy, an ancient organization of 76 planets. Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand and define religion. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began an investigation concerning the claims the Church of Scientology made in connection with its E-meters. [380] It has gained judicial recognition in Italy,[381][clarification needed] and Scientology officials have won the right to perform marriages in South Africa. Judgement of Mr Justice Latey, Re: B & G (Minors) (Custody) Delivered in the High Court Introspection is defined for the purpose of this rundown as a condition where the person is "looking into one's own mind, feelings, reactions, etc. [474] Social problems are ascribed to breakdowns in ARC – in other words, a lack of agreement on reality, a failure to communicate effectively, or a failure to develop affinity. Scientology is nothing but a criminal organization. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. In 1952, he expanded upon the success of Dianetics by creating Scientology. [173] Hubbard described these early events collectively as "space opera". [24][25][26] In 1992, a court in Canada convicted the Scientology Church in Toronto of spying on law enforcement and government agencies, and criminal breach of trust, later upheld by the Ontario Court of Appeal. [476], According to David G. Bromley, religious studies professor, working toward being an "Operating Thetan" means moving up the Bridge to Total Freedom, "which at the highest level transcends material law". I established, along scientific rather than religious or humanitarian lines that the thing which is the person, the personality, is separable from the body and the mind at will and without causing bodily death or derangement. [173][424] Melton suggests that these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended as descriptions of historical events and that, like other religious mythology, they may have their truth in the realities of the body and mind which they symbolize. The ultimate goal of Scientology is true spiritual enlightenment and freedom. [38], The Church of Scientology argues that Scientology is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, and persecuted. [461][462] However, Hubbard wrote that hypnosis is a "wild variable", and compared parlor hypnosis to an atom bomb. [410], In November 2009, Australian Senator Nick Xenophon used a speech in Federal Parliament to allege that the Church of Scientology is a criminal organization. [168][170] Hubbard created the anti-psychiatry organization Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR), which operates Psychiatry: An Industry of Death, an anti-psychiatry museum. [243] Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to others by paying a commission to those who recruit new members. [253][254][255][256], Stephen A. Kent, a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy. Church of Scientology International v. Time Warner, Inc., et al. Dianetics was organized and centralized to consolidate power under Hubbard, and groups that were previously recruited into Dianetics were no longer permitted to organize autonomously. [74][75], Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health spent six months on the New York Times bestseller list. It has been variously defined as a cult, a business or a new religious movement. [181] Organizational operating budgets are performance-related and subject to frequent reviews. [170], Hubbard taught that psychiatrists were responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying that psychiatry has at various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psychiatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mass murderers, and created the Holocaust". In August 1965, Hubbard published the book Art that defines art as "a word which summarizes the quality of communication". [107][108] According to Lindholm, for the inner cadre of Scientologists in that period, involvement depended not so much on belief in a particular doctrine but on unquestioning faith in Hubbard. "[422], J. Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will continue, "scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definition, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field. [152], Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale. Blind belief is held to be of lesser significance than the practical application of Scientologist methods. [187][188] Defectors who turn into critics of the movement are declared suppressive persons,[189][190][191][192] and the Church of Scientology has a reputation for moving aggressively against such detractors. [463] He also wrote: Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity. [404][405], The Church of Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. The New Word, Publisher: Forgotten Books (February 7, 2008), The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, page 556, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, multiple offenses by a U.S. Federal Court, convicted the Scientology Church in Toronto, Journal of the American Medical Association, Association for Better Living and Education, World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, International Association of Scientologists, Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, Headley v. Church of Scientology International, Scientology beliefs and practices § ARC and KRC triangle, Going Clear: Scientology and the Prison of Belief, Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath, Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology, European Council, Recommendation 1178: Sects and New Religious Movements, "Tom's aliens target City's 'planetary rulers, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, "Toronto Church Faces Heavy Fine: Scientology Branch is Convicted of Spying on Police, Others", "Scientology's fraud conviction upheld in France", "Hubbard's Church 'Unconstitutional': Germany Prepares to Ban Scientology – SPIEGEL ONLINE", "National Assembly of France report No. [58], In May 1950, Hubbard's Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science was published by pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction. Hubbard, L Ron. [262] The head of the French Church of Scientology was convicted at the same trial and given a suspended one-year prison sentence.[263]. [340], The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May 2009 to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists. [183] The RPF involves a daily regimen of five hours of auditing or studying, eight hours of work, often physical labor, such as building renovation, and at least seven hours of sleep. [161][219][220], Operating Thetan levels are offered only at Scientology's Advanced Organizations (Los Angeles, Sydney, East Grinstead and Copenhagen). The sequence of study ("training") and auditing ("processing") levels is termed the "Bridge to Total Freedom", or simply "the Bridge". ", "Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology", "The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers – New on the Net", "Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology", "Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another", "Scientology protestors take action around world", "Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church", "Second round of Anonymous v Scientology", "Scientology Marriage Officers Approved in South Africa", "Decision of March 13, 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden", "Opinion of the New Zealand Inland Revenue Department on the Charitable Status of Scientology", "2007 U.S. Department of State – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal", "La Audiencia Nacional reconoce a la Cienciología como iglesia", "The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition", "Scientology suit on PR firm heads for trial", "Researching Scientology: Academic Premises, Promises, and Problematic", "The Religious Status of Scientology: Is Scientology a Religion? [39][40], L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986) was the only child of Harry Ross Hubbard, a United States Navy officer, and his wife, Ledora Waterbury. [295] In March 2010, former Scientologist Janette Lang stated that at age 20 she became pregnant by her boyfriend while in the organization,[296] and her boyfriend's Scientology supervisors "coerced them into terminating the pregnancy". [479][480][481] Also, the character of Lancaster Dodd, played by Philip Seymour Hoffman, shares a physical resemblance to Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives. [29], The Church of Scientology has been described by government inquiries, international parliamentary bodies, scholars, law lords, and numerous superior court judgements as both a dangerous cult and a manipulative profit-making business. Cookies and social media plugins allow us among other things to offer you the best possible user experience, to show you relevant messages and to collect statistical information regarding our website. Na de oprichting volgden nog leidende boeken over specifieke thema's. [313] As a result of the litigation, this material, normally strictly safeguarded and used only in Scientology's more advanced "OT levels", found its way onto the Internet. Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds [sic], of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization". The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the Thetans. Hubbard established the policy in the 1950s, in response to criticism both from within and outside his organization. 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